Glossary of Terms relating to the German Shepherd

Working Titles

Schutzhund Titles

AD Aus dauerprufing: Endurance Title – Must be at least 16 Months. An endurance test performed by gaiting approximately six – ten miles per hour for about 12 miles with a ten minute rest halfway and a simple obedience test at the end. AD is a prerequisite for a Korung evaluation
B or BH Begleithunde: Basic companion dog – traffic sureness. This is the preliminary and prerequisite test for a dog going on to get his/her Schutzhund titles. A combination temperament and obedience test. B and BH are used interchangeably. Must be at least 15 months old.

WH: Watch Dog. Watchdog Title – Must be 15 Months.

SchH1: Novice Schutzhund qualification in tracking, obedience, and protection. Must be at least 18 months

Schutzhund originated in Germany in the early 1900’s as a breeding suitability test for the German shepherd dog. It was started by Amax Avon Stephanitz who is the founder of the German Shepherd breed. He designed the sport of schutzhund to be used as a tool by breeders. Schutzhund is intended to give a breeder a way of measuring the working ability of a dog so that this information can be used in a breeding program. It provided breeders with a method to evaluate temperament, character, trainability, willingness and mental and physical soundness and to select and use only the highest quality dogs for breeding programs. Schutzhund was originally intended as a certification program, which in effect it still is. But over the years it has evolved into a sport where competitors see who can do the best job in training their dogs in the skills that are tested.

SchH2: Intermediate Schutzhund qualification in tracking, obedience, and protection. Must be at least 19 months old
SchH3: Masters level of Schutzhund tracking, obedience, and protection. Must be 20 months old
SchHA: A limited SchH title, similar to SchH I but without the tracking portion.
VPG = Vielseitigkeitsprufung fur Gebrauchshunde (Versatility Test for Working (Utility) Dogs in Germany

In response to political forces in Germany, in 2004 the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (SV) and the Deutscher Hundesportverein (DHV) made substantial changes to Schutzhund. The DHV adopted the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) rules that govern IPO titles, so that at least on paper the SV and DHV gave up control of the sport to the FCI. The DHV changed the name of the titles from “SchH” (Schutzhund) to “VPG” (Vielseitigkeitsprüfung für Gebrauchshunde which roughly translates Versatility examination for working dogs). The SV has retained the “SchH” title names, but otherwise conforms to the DHV/FCI rules.

FH: Fahrtenhund, tracking qualification.
FH1: Advanced tracking. Must be 18 Months
FH2: Superior tracking qualification. The most advanced tracking title – Must be 20 Months

International Trial Titles
IPO1: International Novice Schutzhund trial qualification. International trial rules similar to Schutzhund test, but with some variations.
IPO2: International Intermediate Schutzhund. International trial rules again, very similar to Schutzhund 2 (SchH2) more challenging with tracking, obedience and protection.
IPO3: International Masters level Schutzhund. International trial rules, the full competition level of International Trial Rules.
DH: Service Dog.
DPH: Service Police Dog.
PH Polizehund: Police Dog.
HGH Herdengebrauchshund: Herding dog- a qualification of dogs working with flocks.
LwH Lawinen Hund: Avalanche Dog.
PFP I, II (PFP1 and PFP2) – Polizeifaehrtenhund I, II: Police Tracking Dog I or II.
ZH ZH1, ZH2 and ZH3: Zollhund, dog trained to work with customs police.
ZFH: Customs Tracking Dog.
RH: Rescue Dog.

Excellent – V (Vorzuglich) 286-300
Very Good – SG (Sehr gut) 270-285
Good – G (Gut) 240-269
Satisfactory B (Befriedigend) 220-239
Insufficient M (Mangelhaft) 0-219

Czech Titles

ZM – Basic title similar to a Schutzhund BH but with bite work
ZPO – Protection title
SPO – Slovak Protection title
ZVV1/SVV1 – The preliminary Czech title, extensive tracking, on and off leash obedience and protection. Similar to Schutzhund 1 (SchH1) but very different.
ZVV2/SVV2 – Much more challenging second Czech title includes more extensive tracking, more intense obedience and difficult protection. Similar to Schutzhund 2 (SchH2) however very difficult and geared towards real everyday situations.
ZVV3/SVV3 – The master level of Czech Title System on 5-9 dogs receive this prestigious title per year. This title includes very long detailed tracking, full obedience and very extensive protection. Similar to Schutzhund 3 however v very demanding and much more realistic.
SP – Tracking title
ZPS – Special tracking title
SP – Participant in Search and Rescue
UPM – Completion of Search and Rescue
ZZP Search and Rescue Dog
ZLP – Avalanche Dog
ZP-VB – Police examination title
SP-PS – Border Patrol Dog title
SPZ – Rescue Dog
SPZ2 – Highest Level Rescue Dog
SLP – Snow Rescue Dog
ZMP – Similar to ZVV, also includes article search (ZMMP) 1st level
ZMP2 -Highest level

International Czech Working Titles

Mistr. CR – Czech Working Champion
Mistr. SR – Slovak Working Champion
UM – Czech National Participant
UM CR – Czech National Champion
UM SR – Slovak National Participant
UMS FCI – National Participant for the World FCI team
UMS WUSV – National Participant for the World WUSV team
KRAJ. VIT – Regional Show Champion
VIT. TR. – Czech Class Champion (Show)

Czech Ratings/Scores

“V” Vyborny: Excellent
Velmi Dobry – Very Good
Dobry – Good
Trida – Class selected to the 1st class or 2nd class
Chov – Champion
Dozivotne – Selected to a breed class for life
Bonitacni Karta – Breed Survey (Series of letters and numbers to describe a dog)
Full Bonitacion – A complete breed survey

AKC Titles

CGC: The dog has a Canine Good Citizen certificate (generally not considered a true working title).CDEX: CD Excellent.
CD: Companion dog. The first of five working qualifications, each of increasing difficulty, awarded to dogs gaining a certain percentage of total marks at working trials.
HT: Herding Tested.
HC: Herding Champion.
UD: Utility dog. Working Qualification.
TD: Tracking dog. Qualification title for nose work.
TDI: Therapy Dog International.
TT: Temperament Tested.
TC: Temperament Certified.

Other Titles

Gebrauchshundklasse: Working dog class-the only class available for animals over two/in Germany.
BpDH1 2: Railroad Police Dog.
BIH: Blind Leader Dog.
INT Internationale Prufungsklasse: International Training Degree.
BPDH I, II – Bannpolizeidiensthund I or II: Railroad Police Service Dog I or II.
GrH – Grenzen Hund: Border Patrol Dog.
PSP I, II – Polizeischutzhundprufung I, II: Police Protection Dog I or II.
Bundeslestunggssieger (BSP): German National Working Dog Champion awarded at the Bundessiegerprufung (a yearly Schutzhund competition).
Huntesieger: Herding Dog Champion at the German Herding Dog Championships.
M.H. militar hund: Military Dog.
S.H. sanitats hund: Red Cross Dog.
Kr.H. kriegshund: War Dog.
KNPV — The KNPV is also known as the Royal Dutch Police Dog Sport. It began in Holland. The name would imply that the sport trains police dogs. This is not correct, the dogs trained in KNPV can not and should not go directly into police service work. The sport was originally designed to provide a certification program by the Dutch government for civilians to train and title dogs that would then be made available to the Dutch Police. The fact is that many people who train in the KNPV still feel that the purpose of the sport is to provide dogs for service work. Many of the exercises closely relate to skills that are needed as a service dog.


ZB-Zuchtbewertung: Conformation Show Rating followed by:
VA -Vorzuglich Auslese: Excellent Select, the highest attainable award by a German show dog and granted only at the annual Sieger Show.
V – Vorzuglich: Excellent.
SG – Sehr Gut: Very Good; an official German show grade and the highest obtainable by dogs under two.
G – Gut: Good.
VH – Vorhanden: Sufficient show or performance rating.
A – Austreichend: Sufficient show or performance rating.
M – Mangelhaft: Faulty show or performance rating.
U – Ungenugend: Insufficient show or performance rating.
Jugendklasse-ruden: Youth class for males of twelve to eighteen months at German shows.
Jugendklasse-hundinnen: The corresponding class for bitches.
Sieger or siegerin: Title given to the top Male and Female at the German National Show, they will also receive the rating of VA-1.

VA1 – Sieger – Grand Victor at the National Sieger show

VA1 – Siegerin – Grand Victrix at the National Sieger show

Weltsieger: World Seiger title awarded to the top dog at the FCI All Breed Show.
Europasieger: Conformation winner at the European All Breed Show.
Bundeszuchtsieger: Conformation winner at the German National All Breed Show.

Dog Clubs and Societies :

AKC: American Kennel Club.
CKC: Canadian Kennel Club.
UKC: United Kennel Club
SV: Schaferhund Verein, (Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde), GSD Society of West Germany. The original GSD breed club and breed registry, based in Germany.

Structure and Colors

Angulations: The angles at which bones of shoulder and upper arm meet at the shoulder joint, and those of upper and lower thigh meet at the knee joint.
High withered: When the area where the neck runs into the back is definite, long and well filled in with muscle over the vertebrae between the shoulder blades, and slopes into the back, rather than being on the same horizontal with it (flat-withered).
Dew claws: Additional toes on inside of the leg above the foot and making no contact with ground. Many puppies are born without them on the rear legs.
Cow hocked: The dog stands and moves with the point of hock turned inwards.
Croup: The pelvis together with covering of muscle and coat.

Sable: A gray, brown or fawn foundation color with black- shaded guard hairs. (Wolf like colorings).
Washed out: Marked palling of color and pigment in nose and nail.

Entire or Intact: Having both testicles in the scrotum.
Monorchid (often incorrectly called Cryptorchid): A dog possessing one testicle. Cryptorchid means that neither testicle is present in the scrotem

Breeding Value Assessments:

Korung: German breed survey to select animals for breeding. Class 1 animals recommended, Class 2 animals suitable. The purpose of breed survey is to select from the breeding registry a number of dogs that in their character, performance, and anatomical construction appear suitable for the conservation and improvement of the breed.
KK1: Korklasse, survey class. Breed Survey class (Kkl1 or Kkl2) In order to be breed-surveyed a dog must have a SchH, HGH or IPO title, must also have approved hips, pass an AD, and have a show-rating of G or better
KKLI: Korklasse I, or Koerklasse 1 (Kkl 1) Especially recommended for breeding by the SV. Breed surveyed recommended to breeding. Koer Class rating which states that the dog has been breed surveyed and found to be breeding quality.
KKLII or Koerklasse 2 (Kkl 2): Suitable for breeding by the SV. Korklasse II, Breed surveyed suitable for breeding means that the dog may have a structural or protection work fault which could be compensated for by bloodlines or working qualities. May be resurveyed and reclassified at a later date.
Lbz – Lebenszeit: Lifetime rating. Breed Surveyed for Life — The result of a Breed Survey (Körklasse) is for life (normally after the second Survey)
ZW Zuchtwert: ZW-value — Zuchtwert (hip score – literally)evaluation — is a Breed Value Assessment – a number assigned that gives an indication of the genotype of the dog for breeding purposes. Used to aid breeders in making the selection of breeding partners for their dogs according to their hip status. A breed value of 100 is typical for the breed. Each breeder should strive to produce offspring with a Breed Value LESS than 100.

Your dog is assigned the ZW initially from adding up its parents ZW. Say, the Sire has 101 and the Dam 95. Add these two up to be 196 and divide it by two making it 98. Your dogs’ ZW. The more a dog produces progeny with good hips, the lower its ZW goes. So, each time one of your dogs’ pups hip/elbow ratings are sent it, it can help and sometimes hinder your dogs’ rating.

TSB Triebveranlagung: fighting drive. Triebveranlung, Selbstsicherheit und Belastbarkeit (Ger.) = drive, self-confidence, and ability to handle stress – in a courage test. Ratings are “pronounced” or “sufficient.”

Bloodline: Animals sharing a specific familly relationship over several generations.
Inbreeding: Deliberate mating together of close relatives.

Breed Survey – Czech

The Czech’s have a similar system to the East Germans for breed survey. The Czech’s also use a series of letters, as well as numbers in the breed survey. The following table is a translation of a Czech “Bonitacni Karta”, or Survey card, and describes the various numbers and letters used to describe a particular dog.

** This Survey Summary is valid from 1990 to present. There is another survey for dogs surveyed prior to 1990.

Overall Appearance

Appropriate Breed

Ears, Color,

Personality Traits
0 typical appearance of a mongrel A faulty head O light eyes 1 Considerable hardness, courage and fight drive
1 too light, greyhound like B steep angles of the fore legs T poor pigment 2 Good hardness, courage and fight drive
2 small, under sized C straight, short croup U wolf gray, light features 3 Sufficient courage, hardness and fight drive
3 light for height requirement D steep croup V wolf gray, dark features 4 Insufficient courage, hardness and fight drive
4 Required strength, build, refinement height:
Dog: 60 – 62 cm
Female: 55 – 57 cm
E steep angulation hind legs W incorrect ears P Dog releases bite on handler command
5 required strength, build, refinement height:
Dog: 63 – 65 cm
Female: 58 – 60 cm
F steep angulation thigh bone Q dark pigment N Dog did not release bite on handler command
6 height within standard, but more coarse, less
G incomplete set of teeth I Black with light features

7 oversize but proportionate, complies with
standard for build, refinement
H bite irregularity X black with dark features

8 too heavy, very little refinement J correct expression, excellent proportions Y totally black

9 coarse K long back Z long coat

M blocky
N shallow chest
P strong head
R faulty tail
S ligaments not firm

Hip Ratings:

PennHIP: Developed at University of Pennsylvania (USA) The procedure measures hip joint laxity; it does not grade a passing or failing score. Loose hips are more prone to developing degenerative joint disease. (See OVC, OFA, “a stamp”).
OFA: Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (Hip Certification in U.S.).
Excellent — Recommended for breeding – No signs of Hip Dysplasia – superior hip socket conformation
OFA Good — Suitable for breeding – a well formed, congruent hip joint
OFA Fair — Permissible to breed but not recommended –
OFA – Borderline – No consensus between radiologists to place hip into either a normal or dysplastic category.
OFA – Mild (Grade 1) mild hip dysplasia present
OFA – Moderate (Grade 2) moderate hip dysplasia present
OFA – Severe (Grade 3) severe hip dysplasia present

OVC: Ontario Veterinary College (Hip Certification in Canada).
German hip ratings: “a” – Zuerkannt: Certified hips that fell within the following three categories:
“A” stamp – Indicates a passing hip score.
“a”-1 Normal – Certified Normal Hips; Excellent
“a”-2 Fast Normal – Certified Near Normal Hips; Good
“a”-3 Noch Zugelassen – Certified still permissible Hips; Fair

Czech hip ratings: Certified hips that fell within the following categories

0/0 — Negative for Hip Dysplasia on left hip/right hip
2/2 — Hip Dysplasia in both hips – anything else is in between
*The same scores can be seen with the elbows


Abbreviation Meaning Country
ANKC Australian National Kennel Council Australia
AKC[ NM] American Kennel Club United States of America
CKC[.SBL] Canadian Kennel Club Canada
CMKU[/FB] Ceskomoravská Kynologická Unie Czech Republic
CSHPK Ceskoslovenská Hlavní Plemenná Kniha Czech Republic
CSSKK Ceskoslovenský Svaz Kynologických Klubu Czech Republic
DKK Dansk Kennel Klub Denmark
KC Kennel Club Great Britain
KCSB Kennel Club Stud Book Great Britain
LOE Livre des Origines Espagnol Spain
LOF[ 9 B.F.] Livre des Origines Français France
LOI Livre des Origines Italien Italy
LOS Livre des Origines Suisse Switzerland
LOSH Livre des Origines Saint Hubert Belgium
MET[.FR.BULL] Magyar Eb Törzskönyv Hungary
NHSB Nederlands Hondenstamboek Netherlands
OHZB[: FB] Osterreichisches Hundezuchtbuch Austria
PKR Polskiej Ksiegi Rodowodowej Poland
RKF Russian Kynological Federation Russia
S Svenska Kennelklubben Sweden
SHSB Schweizerischer Hundestammbuch Switzerland
SLR [Kinoloska Zveza Slovenije] Slovenia
SPKP Slovenská Plemenná Kniha Psov Slovakia
VDH[/ZFB] Verband für das Deutsche Hundewesen
Zuchtbuch Französische Bulldoggen Germany